Jeep Cherokee (XJ): Description and operation

Brake system

DESCRIPTION

Power assist front disc and rear drum brakes are standard equipment. Disc brake components consist of single piston calipers and ventilated rotors. Rear drum brakes are dual shoe units with cast brake drums.

The parking brake mechanism is lever and cable operated. The cables are attached to levers on the rear drum brake secondary shoes. The parking brakes are operated by a hand lever.

A dual diaphragm vacuum power brake booster is used for all applications. All models have an aluminum master cylinder with plastic reservoir.

All models are equipped with a combination valve.

The valve contains a pressure differential valve and switch and a fixed rate rear proportioning valve.

Factory brake lining on all models consists of an organic base material combined with metallic particles.

The original equipment linings do not contain asbestos.

Service warnings & cautions

DESCRIPTION

WARNING: DUST AND DIRT ACCUMULATING ON BRAKE PARTS DURING NORMAL USE MAY CONTAIN ASBESTOS FIBERS FROM AFTERMARKET LININGS. BREATHING EXCESSIVE CONCENTRATIONS OF ASBESTOS FIBERS CAN CAUSE SERIOUS BODILY HARM. EXERCISE CARE WHEN SERVICING BRAKE PARTS. DO NOT CLEAN BRAKE PARTS WITH COMPRESSED AIR OR BY DRY BRUSHING. USE A VACUUM CLEANER SPECIFICALLY DESIGNED FOR THE REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS FIBERS FROM BRAKE COMPONENTS.

IF A SUITABLE VACUUM CLEANER IS NOT AVAILABLE, CLEANING SHOULD BE DONE WITH A WATER DAMPENED CLOTH. DO NOT SAND, OR GRIND BRAKE LINING UNLESS EQUIPMENT USED IS DESIGNED TO CONTAIN THE DUST RESIDUE.

DISPOSE OF ALL RESIDUE CONTAINING ASBESTOS FIBERS IN SEALED BAGS OR CONTAINERS TO MINIMIZE EXPOSURE TO YOURSELF AND OTHERS.

FOLLOW PRACTICES PRESCRIBED BY THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY FOR THE HANDLING, PROCESSING, AND DISPOSITION OF DUST OR DEBRIS THAT MAY CONTAIN ASBESTOS FIBERS.

CAUTION: Never use gasoline, kerosene, alcohol, motor oil, transmission fluid, or any fluid containing mineral oil to clean the system components. These fluids damage rubber cups and seals. Use only fresh brake fluid or Mopar brake cleaner to clean or flush brake system components. These are the only cleaning materials recommended. If system contamination is suspected, check the fluid for dirt, discoloration, or separation into distinct layers. Also check the reservoir cap seal for distortion. Drain and flush the system with new brake fluid if contamination is suspected.

CAUTION: Use Mopar brake fluid, or an equivalent quality fluid meeting SAE/DOT standards J1703 and DOT 3. Brake fluid must be clean and free of contaminants.

Use fresh fluid from sealed containers only to ensure proper antilock component operation.

CAUTION: Use Mopar multi-mileage or high temperature grease to lubricate caliper slide surfaces, drum brake pivot pins, and shoe contact points on the backing plates. Use multi-mileage grease or GE 661 or Dow 111 silicone grease on caliper slide pins to ensure proper operation.

Brake pedal

DESCRIPTION

A suspended-type brake pedal is used, the pedal pivots on a shaft mounted in the pedal support bracket. The bracket is attached to the dash panel and steering support bracket. The unit is serviced as an assembly, except for the pedal pad.

OPERATION

The brake pedal is attached to the booster push rod. When the pedal is depressed, the primary booster push rod is depressed which move the booster secondary rod. The booster secondary rod depress the master cylinder piston.

Brake lamp switch

DESCRIPTION

The plunger type brake lamp switch is mounted on a bracket attached to the brake pedal support. The switch can be adjusted when necessary.

OPERATION

The brake lamp switch is used to for the brake lamp, speed control and brake sensor circuits.

Red brake warning lamp

DESCRIPTION

A red warning lamp is used for the service brake portion of the hydraulic system. The lamp is located in the instrument cluster.

OPERATION

The red warning light alerts the driver if a pressure differential exists between the front and rear hydraulic systems or the parking brakes are applied.

The lamp is turned on momentarily when the ignition switch is turn to the on position. This is a self test to verify the lamp is operational.

Power brake booster

DESCRIPTION

The booster assembly consists of a housing divided into separate chambers by two internal diaphragms.

The outer edge of each diaphragm is attached to the booster housing. The diaphragms are connected to the booster primary push rod.

Two push rods are used in the booster. The primary push rod connects the booster to the brake pedal. The secondary push rod connects the booster to the master cylinder to stroke the cylinder pistons.

OPERATION

The atmospheric inlet valve is opened and closed by the primary push rod. Booster vacuum supply is through a hose attached to an intake manifold fitting at one end and to the booster check valve at the other. The vacuum check valve in the booster housing is a one-way device that prevents vacuum leak back.

Power assist is generated by utilizing the pressure differential between normal atmospheric pressure and a vacuum. The vacuum needed for booster operation is taken directly from the engine intake manifold.

The entry point for atmospheric pressure is through a filter and inlet valve at the rear of the housing (Fig. 1).

The chamber areas forward of the booster diaphragms are exposed to vacuum from the intake manifold. The chamber areas to the rear of the diaphragms, are exposed to normal atmospheric pressure of 101.3 kilopascals (14.7 pounds/square in.).

Brake pedal application causes the primary push rod to open the atmospheric inlet valve. This exposes the area behind the diaphragms to atmospheric pressure.

The resulting pressure differential provides the extra apply force for power assist.

The booster check valve, check valve grommet and booster seals are serviceable.

Master cylinder

DESCRIPTION

The master cylinder has a removable nylon reservoir.

The cylinder body is made of aluminum and contains a primary and secondary piston assembly.

The cylinder body including the piston assemblies are not serviceable. If diagnosis indicates an internal problem with the cylinder body, it must be replaced as an assembly. The reservoir and grommets are the only replaceable parts on the master cylinder.

OPERATION

The master cylinder bore contains a primary and secondary piston. The primary piston supplies hydraulic pressure to the front brakes. The secondary piston supplies hydraulic pressure to the rear brakes.

The master cylinder reservoir stores reserve brake fluid for the hydraulic brake circuits.

Combination valve

DESCRIPTION

The combination valve contains a pressure differential valve and switch and a rear brake proportioning valve. The valve is not repairable and must be replaced as an assembly if diagnosis indicates this is necessary.

OPERATION

PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL VALVE

The pressure differential switch is connected to the brake warning light. The switch is actuated by movement of the switch valve. The switch monitors fluid pressure in the separate front/rear brake hydraulic circuits.

A decrease or loss of fluid pressure in either hydraulic circuit will cause the switch valve to shuttle to the low pressure side. Movement of the valve pushes the switch plunger upward. This action closes the switch internal contacts completing the electrical circuit to the red warning light. The switch valve will remain in an actuated position until repairs to the brake system are made.

PROPORTIONING VALVE

The proportioning valve is used to balance frontrear brake action at high decelerations. The valve allows normal fluid flow during moderate braking.

The valve only controls fluid flow during high decelerations brake stops.

Fig. 1 Power Brake Booster-Typical
Fig. 1 Power Brake Booster-Typical

1 - VACUUM CHECK VALVE
2 - FRONT DIAPHRAGM
3 - REAR DIAPHRAGM
4 - HOUSING
5 - SEAL
6 - AIR FILTER
7 - PRIMARY PUSH ROD (TO BRAKE PEDAL)
8 - ATMOSPHERIC INLET VALVE ASSEMBLY
9 - BOOSTER MOUNTING STUDS (4)
10 - SECONDARY PUSH ROD (TO MASTER CYLINDER)
11 - MASTER CYLINDER MOUNTING STUD (2)
12 - SPRING

Front disc brakes

DESCRIPTION

The calipers are a single piston type. The calipers are free to slide laterally, this allows continuous compensation for lining wear.

OPERATION

When the brakes are applied fluid pressure is exerted against the caliper piston. The fluid pressure is exerted equally and in all directions. This means pressure exerted against the caliper piston and within the caliper bore will be equal (Fig. 2).

Fluid pressure applied to the piston is transmitted directly to the inboard brake shoe. This forces the shoe lining against the inner surface of the disc brake rotor. At the same time, fluid pressure within the piston bore forces the caliper to slide inward on the mounting bolts. This action brings the outboard brake shoe lining into contact with the outer surface of the disc brake rotor.

Fig. 2 Brake Caliper Operation
Fig. 2 Brake Caliper Operation

1 - CALIPER
2 - PISTON
3 - PISTON BORE
4 - SEAL
5 - INBOARD SHOE
6 - OUTBOARD SHOE

In summary, fluid pressure acting simultaneously on both piston and caliper, produces a strong clamping action. When sufficient force is applied, friction will attempt to stop the rotors from turning and bring the vehicle to a stop.

Application and release of the brake pedal generates only a very slight movement of the caliper and piston. Upon release of the pedal, the caliper and piston return to a rest position. The brake shoes do not retract an appreciable distance from the rotor. In fact, clearance is usually at, or close to zero. The reasons for this are to keep road debris from getting between the rotor and lining and in wiping the rotor surface clear each revolution.

The caliper piston seal controls the amount of piston extension needed to compensate for normal lining wear.

During brake application, the seal is deflected outward by fluid pressure and piston movement (Fig. 3).

When the brakes (and fluid pressure) are released, the seal relaxes and retracts the piston.

The amount of piston retraction is determined by the amount of seal deflection. Generally the amount is just enough to maintain contact between the piston and inboard brake shoe.

Fig. 3 Lining Wear Compensation By Piston Seal
Fig. 3 Lining Wear Compensation By Piston Seal

1 - PISTON
2 - CYLINDER BORE
3 - PISTON SEAL BRAKE PRESSURE OFF
4 - CALIPER HOUSING
5 - DUST BOOT
6 - PISTON SEAL BRAKE PRESSURE ON

Rear drum brake

DESCRIPTION

The rear brakes use a leading shoe (primary) and trailing shoe (secondary) design (Fig. 4).

OPERATION

When the brake pedal is depressed hydraulic pressure pushes the rear brake wheel cylinder pistons outward. The wheel cylinder push rods then push the brake shoes outward against the brake drum. When the brake pedal is released return springs attached to the brake shoes pull the shoes back to there original position.

Parking brake

DESCRIPTION

The parking bake is a hand lever and cable operated system used to apply the rear brakes.

OPERATION

A hand operated lever in the passenger compartment is the main application device. The front cable is connected between the hand lever and the tensioner.

The tensioner rod is attached to the equalizer which is the connecting point for the rear cables (Fig.

5).

The rear cables are connected to the actuating lever on each secondary brake shoe. The levers are attached to the brake shoes by a pin either pressed into, or welded to the lever. A clip is used to secure the pin in the brake shoe. The pin allows each lever to pivot independently of the brake shoe.

To apply the parking brakes, the hand lever is pulled upward. This pulls the rear brake shoe actuating levers forward, by means tensioner and cables.

As the actuating lever is pulled forward, the parking brake strut (which is connected to both shoes), exerts a linear force against the primary brake shoe. This action presses the primary shoe into contact with the drum. Once the primary shoe contacts the drum, force is exerted through the strut. This force is transferred through the strut to the secondary brake shoe causing it to pivot into the drum as well.

Fig. 4 Brake Components
Fig. 4 Brake Components

1 - ADJUSTER LEVER
2 - ADJUSTER CABLE
3 - HOLDDOWN SPRING AND RETAINERS
4 - ADJUSTER LEVER SPRING
5 - TRAILING SHOE
6 - CYLINDER-TO-SUPPORT SEAL
7 - HOLDDOWN PINS
8 - ACCESS PLUGS
9 - SUPPORT PLATE
10 - CABLE HOLE PLUG
11 - PARK BRAKE STRUT AND SPRING
12 - ADJUSTER SCREW ASSEMBLY
13 - HOLDDOWN SPRING AND RETAINERS
14 - LEADING SHOE
15 - CABLE GUIDE
16 - SHOE RETURN SPRINGS
17 - SHOE GUIDE PLATE
18 - PIN
19 - SHOE SPRING
20 - PARK BRAKE LEVER

Fig. 5 Parking Brake Components
Fig. 5 Parking Brake Components

1 - REAR CABLES
2 - EQUALIZER
3 - FRONT CABLE
4 - TENSIONER ROD

A gear type ratcheting mechanism is used to hold the lever in an applied position. Parking brake release is accomplished by the hand lever release button.

A parking brake switch is mounted on the parking brake lever and is actuated by movement of the lever. The switch, which is in circuit with the red warning light in the dash, will illuminate the warning light whenever the parking brakes are applied.

Parking brake adjustment is controlled by a cable tensioner mechanism. The cable tensioner, once adjusted at the factory, should not need further adjustment under normal circumstances. Adjustment may be required if a new tensioner, or cables are installed, or disconnected.

Brake hoses and lines

DESCRIPTION

Flexible rubber hose is used at both front brakes and at the rear axle junction block. Double walled steel tubing is used to connect the master cylinder to the major hydraulic braking components and then to the flexible rubber hoses. Double inverted style and ISO style flares are used on the brake lines.

    Next pageDiagnosis and testing

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